Executive Coaching Is Hot!
Driving the trend in executive coaching is
the economy which makes good staff hard to get and harder to keep.
In the need for constant change to stay competitive, companies
see coaching as a way to help valued employees develop swiftly
in the changing business environment.
A growing number of Fortune 500 companies offer executive coaching
to their top people. Whether hiring external coaches or training
their own leaders in coaching skills, companies are finding that
coaching is essential for creating change and evolving people towards
their highest productivity and potential.
Research shows that the quality of the relationship between manager
and employee is a major predictor of an employee's intentions to
remain in an organization (Buckingham and Coffman, 1999). Coaching
helps managers talk with subordinates about their developmental
needs. There's a potential big payoff in developing positive relationships
The Executive Summit of the International Coach Federation defines
executive coaching as a facilitative one-to-one mutually designed
relationship between a professional coach and a key contributor
who has a powerful position in the organization. The focus of the
coaching is usually upon organizational performance or development,
but may have a personal component as well.
Why Executive Coaching?
Executive coaching can be very useful
in helping executives carry what they learn in training situations,
such as leadership development programs, to the workplace and
in putting those lessons into practice. One
study examined the effects of executive coaching in a public
sector municipal agency. Thirty-one managers underwent a conventional
managerial training program, which was followed by 8 weeks of
one-on-one coaching. Training increased productivity by 22.4%.
The coaching, which included goal setting, collaborative problem
solving, practice, feedback, supervisory involvement, evaluation
of end results, and a public presentation, increased productivity
by 88%, a significantly greater gain compared to training alone
(Olivero, Bane, & Kopeirnan
1997). If the observations from this study bear out, it means that
executive coaching coupled with management and leadership training
can boost productivity and help build leadership competencies.
The objectivity that an executive coach
brings to a developmental opportunity is helpful to managers
seeking to make difficult changes in attitudes, work habits,
perspectives and interpersonal relationships.(McCauley & Hughes-James,
1994; Young & Dixon, 1996.)
There seems to be little question that coaching
is a valid method of producing desired change with leaders. Companies
that have employed coaches will agree that, overall, there are
performance improvements, as well as improved well-being among
About 6 out of 10 organizations currently offer coaching or other
developmental counseling to their managers and executives according
to a survey by Manchester, Inc., a Jacksonville , Florida , career
management consulting firm. Another 20% of companies said they
plan to offer such coaching within the next year.
One study shows that the top reasons for offering coaching include:
1) Sharpening the leadership skills of high-potential individuals
2) Correcting management behavior problems such as poor communication
skills, failure to develop subordinates, or indecisiveness (72%);
3) Ensuring the success, or decreasing the failure rate, of newly
promoted managers (64%);
4) Correcting employee relations problems such as poor interpersonal
skills, disorganization, demeaning or arrogant behavior (59%);
5) Providing the required management and leadership skills to
technically oriented employee (58%).
The Masterful Coaching Experience
What makes a masterful coaching experience, one that provides
long-lasting and magnificent results? On the face, coaching sounds
like simple goal setting with accountability and motivational pep
talks thrown in . The athletic coach comes to mind, transformed
into a business-like version. Even Ken Blanchard co-authored a
book with Don Shula, Everyone's A Coach . But the truth is, not
everybody is a masterful coach.
The work of truly effective coaching within organizations involves
much more than goal-setting . It involves unleashing the human
spirit and expanding people's capacity to achieve stretch goals
and bring about real change. This does not start with simple coaching
techniques like setting goals, motivating people and giving feedback.
It starts with considering and altering the underlying context
in which these occur.
The underlying context is all of the conclusions,
beliefs and assumptions people in the organization have reached
in order to succeed. This context is shaped by the shared interpretations
people make about their business environment. And it also includes
the management culture that is inherited or self-imposed. This
basic cultural context must be considered in creating a framework
for effective coaching (Hargrove, 1995).
In today's rapidly changing business environment,
winning organizations need a new kind of management culture, one
that is based on creating new knowledge. This requires constant
learning. A crucial catalyst in this new management culture is
the transformational coach. His or her job is to provide direction
while leaving plenty of room for people to pursue their passions,
personal interests and projects.
Xerox's Paul Allaire says, “The key to the new productivity
is people – helping them do what they can do, what they want
to do, what they inherently know is the right thing to do.” Developing
individuals' capacities for productivity is critical to the competitive
life of business organizations today.
In its simplest terms, masterful coaching
involves expanding people's capacity to take effective action.
It involves challenging underlying beliefs and assumptions that
are responsible for one's actions and behaviors. At its deepest
level, masterful coaching examines not only what one does, and
why one does what one does, but also who one is. What are the principles
upon which one forms identity?
Using Assessments with Coaching
Many coaches begin the coaching process with
assessments. Some coaching involves extensive feedback from 360
degree surveys in which the person being coached receives input
from peers, subordinates and superiors.
Initially there may be extensive work examining and formulating
one's personal values, interests and creating a personal mission
statement. This is similar to a business strategy and mission statement
for the organization. There may be coaching around aligning the
personal purpose and objectives with those of the organization.
The astute coach will help the person
examine gaps or openings between what they believe they do and
what they actually do. This is
fertile ground for personal growth and development, but is also
the area where people can become defensive and resistant. It
takes a talented coach to help someone out of these stuck areas,
or blind spots – where they may
not see with clarity. This is where the effective coach uses
finely-tuned listening and observing skills. Some talented coaches
have spoken of the magic of asking the right question at just
the right time.
Goals and Outcomes
What are the goals and outcomes of
effective executive coaching? Traditionally,
the goals have been fairly specific and have focused on preventing
executive derailment (Ludeman, 1995; Machan, 1988; McCauley & Douglas, 1998; Sperry, 1993; Waldroop & Butler,
1996). The coaching process may address a specific behavior that
is causing managerial conflict (Strickland, 1997), improve specific
managerial competencies or solve specific problems (Douglas & McCauley,
1997; Hall, Otazo & Hollenbeck, 1999), or help executives address
behaviors or issues that are impeding job effectiveness (Koonce,
Increasingly coaching seeks to enhance
the performance of high-potential executives (Judge & Cowll,
1997). The goals of executive coaching are shifting and broadening
as more and more executives seek out coaching for a variety of
Here are some other important results cited in research on the
outcomes of executive coaching:
1. Better management by enhancing an executive's ability to navigate
sensitive political issues;
2. Strengthening strategic decision making;
a window onto organizational and self explorations (Hall, Otazo & Hollenbeck, 1999; Pilette & Wingard,1997).
Research by the Center for Creative Leadership has found that
the primary causes of derailment in executives involve deficits
in emotional competence. These are listed as:
1. Difficulty handling change
2. Not being able to work well in a team
3. Poor interpersonal relations
A study of 130 executives found that how well people handled their
own emotions determined how much people around them preferred to
deal with them (Clarke, 1997).
It is becoming obvious that coaching is not
only about behavioral changes leading to improved performance on
the job. The masterful coaching experience goes deeper than behavior
changes into real and lasting changes through mind shift. Many
call this transformational or masterful coaching.
One of the newer fields of study is developmental coaching. This
examines the client's level of development along the 15 or so one
journeys throughout the life span. Based on the work of developmental
psychologists (Wilbur, 2000), it combines with the work of organizational
action science and is called Developmental or Integral Coaching
Coaching is effective when it leads to behavioral
change, particularly when it affects the bottom line. However,
for change to be lasting and meaningful, the coach must reach for
deeper levels of commitment and explore core issues with the client.
David Whyte puts it eloquently: “It
is incumbent on each of us, to start telling our story in such
a way that you can grant magnificence back to your work and back
to what you do. If you can't grant magnificence to your work, you
grant magnificence to yourself and have the courage to step out
of it into something that is really commensurate to your gifts
and is a place where you can really feel like you come alive again
at the frontier of your own destiny ” (1999).
How to Get the Most Out of Coaching
1. Talk about what matters most. Talk
about your important needs. Be selfish about your coaching time – talk
about what really matters rather than what you “should” be
2. Focus on how you feel and want to feel,
not just on what you want to produce. Don't avoid talking about
your feelings, no matter what your opinions of them are. Feelings
drive behaviors. To change your behaviors, change how you feel.
Be willing to explore and discuss your feelings with your coach.
Awareness is the first step toward change.
3. Get more space, not more time, into your life. Coaching needs
room in order to work. If you're too busy, you'll use coaching
to push yourself harder, instead of using coaching to become more
effective. Simplification gets you space. You need space in order
to learn and to be able to evolve beyond where you are today.
4. Become incredibly selfish in order to reduce energy drains.
Coaching will help you to identify and reduce things that drain
and strain you such as recurring problems, difficult relationships
and pressured environments. It's up to you to ask your coach for
help in reducing energy drains.
5. Be open to see things differently.
You will get more out of coaching
if you are willing to examine your assumptions, ways of thinking,
expectations, beliefs, and reactions. As David Whyte has said, “Nobody
has to change, but everybody has to have the conversation.”
6. Sensitize yourself to see and experience things earlier than
before. Coaching conversations will lead you to increased awareness.
The more you sensitize yourself to your feelings and thoughts,
the faster you can respond to events and opportunities. This may
mean eliminating alcohol, stress, caffeine and an adrenaline-based
energy system for living.
7. Design and strengthen your business and personal environments.
The value of coaching can be extended if you use part of your coaching
time to design the perfect environment in which to live and work.
If your surroundings are unpleasant, unhealthy, or disorganized,
they can affect your success. Clean up, organize, beautify.
8. Be clear about your goals before ending the coaching session.
Coaching is just conversation unless it leads to action. Make sure
you know what your goals are, both immediate, near future and long
9. Spend part of your coaching time to improve your ability to
give feedback. Successful leaders know how to give positive feedback
to their key people. They do it frequently and with authenticity.
They never hesitate when feedback is less than positive. You should
give your coach feedback, especially at the end of each session.
Say what worked, what didn't, and what you'd like next.
10. Be willing to evolve yourself, not just increase your performance.
Coaching is a developmental process and an evolutionary one. You'll
learn how to accomplish more with less effort. But you will also
think differently, adopt a new personal vision of yourself, change
outdated beliefs and assumptions and expand your view of yourself
and your place in the world. Work with your coach to become more
magnificent in your work and in your life.
Key Coaching Principles
1. Synergy causes better results, much more easily. Proper coach/client
matching is essential for synergy to occur.
2. When people are fully heard, they move forward immediately.
Not being heard slows down personal development and human evolution.
3. Any situation can be optimized, turned around or improved.
And if it cannot, get out of it responsibly.
4. Fewer problems occur when one has
a strong personal foundation. Rising above the muck of life is
step one in coaching.
5. Sometimes the client has the answer, sometimes the coach does.
It doesn't really matter where it comes from.
6. One can have a perfect life. It's not a fantasy or pipedream.
It really is do-able, and in this lifetime.
7. Humans operate at one percent or less of our potential. Coaching
increases this figure.
8. Success is a basic human right. Success has nothing to do with
deservingness, privilege or background.
9. When the client properly defines success, coaching becomes
easy. And clients know better how to use their coach.
10. Most people don't really know what they truly want. A coach
can help clients discover what that is. It's usually simple.
11. What one puts up with costs one dearly. Tolerations waste
one's spirit, one's heart, one's mind, and one's pocketbook.
12. We are all Picassos-In-Training. The world is waiting for
people to discover, express and share their creativity.
Altier, W. J. The executive coach. Executive Excellence, 6 (10),
Blanchard, K. and D. Shula, Everyone's
a Coach; Zondervan Publishing
Buckingham, Marcus, & Curt Coffman. First,
Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently; Simon & Schuster,
Diedrich, R. C. An iterative approach to executive coaching. Consulting
Psychology: Practice and Research, 48 (2), 61-66, 1996.
Douglas , C.A. and C. D. McCauley.
A survey on the use of formal developmental relationships in
organizations. Issues and Observations, 17 (1– 2), 6-9,
Hall, D.T., K. L. Otazoy, and G. P. Hollenbeck, Behind the closed
doors:what really happens in executive coaching. Organizational
Dynamics, 27 (3), 38-53, 1999.
Hargrove, Robert. Masterful
Coaching; Jossey-Bass/ Pfeiffer, 1995.
Jay, M. Coach2
the Bottom Line: An Executive Guide to Coaching Performance,
Change and Transformation in Organizations. Trafford
Judge, W. Q., and J. Cowll. The brave new world of executive coaching.
Business Horizons, 40 (4), 71-77, 1997.
Kilburg, R. R. Toward a conceptual understanding and definition
of executive coaching. Consulting Psychology: Practice and Research,
48 (2), 134-144, 1996.
Kilburg, R. Executive coaching [special issue]. Consulting Psychology:
Practice and Research, 47, 1996.
Koonce, R. One on one. Training and Development, 48 (2), 34-40,
Lary, B. K. Executive counsel. Human Resource Executive, 11 (1).
Laske, O. An integrative model of developmental coaching. Consulting
Psychology: Practice and Research , 51(3), 139-159, 2000.
Luderman, K. To fill the feedback void. Training and Development,
49 (8), 38-41, 1995.
Machan, D. Sigmund Freud meets Henry Ford. Forbes, 14 (13), 120-122,
McCauley, C. D., and C. A. Douglas. Developmental
relationships. The Center for Creative Leadership, 160-193,
McCauley, C. D., and M. W. Hughes-James. An
evaluation of the outcomes of a leadership development program.
The Center for Creative Leadership, 1994.
Olivero, G., K. Bane, & R.
Kopelrnan. Public Personnel Management,
Peterson, D. B. Executive coaching at work: The art of one-on-one
change. Consulting Psychology: Practice and Research, 48 (2), 78-86,
Pilette, P. C., and E. Wingard. Strengthening the executive's
leadership skills through coaching. In J. E. Lowery (Ed.), Culture
Shift: a Leader's Guide to Managing Change in Health Care. American
Hospital Association, 187-205, 1997.
Sperry, L. Working with executives: Consulting, counseling and
coaching. Individual Psychology 49 (2), 257-266, June, 1993.
Strickland, K. Executive coaching: helping valued executives fulfill
their potential. In A. J. Pickman (Ed.) Special Challenges in Career
Management: Counselor Perspectives . Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Waldroop, J., & T. Butler.
The executive as coach. Harvard Business Review, 74 (6), 111-117,
Whyte, D. The
Heart Aroused: Poetry and the Preservation of the Soul in Corporate
Wilbur, Ken. Integral
Psychology; Shambhala, 2000.
Witherspoon, R., & R. P. White.
Executive coaching: A continuum of roles. Consulting Psychology:
Practice and Research, 48 (2), 124-133, 1996.
Young, D. P., and N. M. Dixon. Helping
Leaders Take Effective Action: A Program Evaluation. The
Center for Creative Leadership, 1996.
Resources is a Leadership Consulting, Training and Executive Coaching
Firm Helping Companies Assess, Select, Coach and Retain Emotionally
Intelligent People; Emotional Intelligence-Based Interviewing and
Selection; Multi-Rater 360-Degree Feedback; Career Coaching; Change
Management; Corporate Culture Surveys and Executive Coaching.
Dr. Maynard Brusman
Consulting Psychologist and Executive Coach
Trusted Advisor to Senior Leadership Teams
Subscribe to Working Resources FREE E-mail Newsletter.
E-mail:email@example.com . Type Subscribe Newsletter.
Voice: 415-546-1252 Web:www.workingresources.com
E-mail This Article to a Collegue...
to Professional Effectiveness Articles Index